Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics. - PubMed - NCBI Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics. - PubMed - NCBI

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Simultaneously, in the lateral tibiofemoral joint, there was little contact for FE results and about 4 MPa small contact stress for in vitro test. Tecscan measurement system Tescan Inc. The FE model of knee. The medial contact stress was significantly greater than the lateral one except within degree flexion.

Van Kampen and R.

Biomechanics | iMechanica

Then the simulation models of the knee joint bone and soft tissues were reconstructed, respectively. It was basically consistent in relative flexion of patellas, being linear with tibiofemoral flexion.

The results showed that the established dynamic FE models of knee are capable of predicting kinematics and the contact stresses during flexion, and could be an efficient tool for the analysis of total knee replacement TKR and knee prosthesis design.

The same method was used for FE model. However, the corresponding measurement and prediction are relatively difficult because of the limitation of ethic and measuring devices.

Therefore, if the tibia flexes 90 degrees at external rotation phase, it is possible to stretch to degree flexion with no lateral condyle backward-forward translation.

It becomes more important to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of the motion and stress during high flexion activities [ 5 ], especially significant for population groups where lifestyle and work activities or religious activities demand deep flexion such as squatting and kneeling.

This possibly caused unrealistic deformations of the lateral cartilage and menisci bottom panel. The in vitro experiment and simulation results were compared in this study, and there were differences between them.

The research of Johal et al. Starting from degree flexion, larger contact stress was in the medial tibiofemoral joint for both of FE and in vitro test. Under the control of the applied muscles force, the femur move is relative to the tibia with full freedom.

And it was limited that the force and movement were weir and pancake dating advice separately. It was also found in this research that, with the deepening tibiofemoral joint flexion, the patellar tendon resulted in medial tilting so that the patella odd facet contact with the femur reduced the tension of the patellar tendon and quadriceps.

Dynamic finite element FE model of knee was developed to simulate both the kinematics and the internal stresses during knee flexion. In return, simulations predict of joint movements and tissue stresses and deformations.

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The measurement system is comprised of I-scan sensor, data conversion handle, data analysis, and calibration software. By calculating the dynamic FEA of natural knee, the movement and joint contact stress of healthy knee could be obtained. The movement of tibia was not active and it was determined by the loading conditions distributed in knee model.

No eversion in knee flexion due to the consistent curvature radius of the medial and lateral femoral posterior condyle, no distal outstanding of medial condyle.

So far, there were few effective methods to directly measure the internal stress and distribution for in vivo knee. The biomechanical experimental system of knee flexion motion was set up to simulate human knee squatting using cadaver knees.

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Meanwhile, with tibiofemoral joint flexing, the tibiofemoral joint pressure increased, and the tension of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon increased. Especially for Asians, the relationship between mechanics and movement in high flexion should be fully understood.

In this paper, the meniscus material parameters were from LeRoux and Setton [ 19 ]. It could not be directly obtained for geometric anatomic model of knee, which includes both bone and soft tissue. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

During 0—degree knees flexion, femur external rotation was average of 20 degrees, and femur abduction turned to average of 2 degrees. Introduction All kinds of movements of the knee joint are harmonious in each joint. This result is consistent with Nakagawa et al. However, tibiofemoral joint was not measured.

There was unusual abduction for one of the specimens during earlier flexion stage. See all images 4 Free text Figure 1 Open Knee provides a computational representation of tibiofemoral joint anatomy and mechanics.

Starting from degree flexion, contact position was obviously distributed in medial and lateral margin patella. Two cases translated downward within 20—degree flexion. The material properties of the different tissues derived from literatures facilitate comparison with them.

Accordingly, the total contact area of tibiofemoral joint relatively decreased, causing larger contact stress in the medial tibiofemoral joint. Prior work with cadaveric specimens included displacement control of TF kinematics and only PF soft tissue representations [ 27 ].

Although the thickness of sensing piece is only 0.

From 0- to degree flexion, medial stress was approximate to the lateral stress for FEA and slightly larger contact stress at lateral joint for in vitro experiment. The patellofemoral joint translation motion results backward, distal, medial, or lateral translation also were approximate to other results [ 253335 ].

The results of movement of femur relative tibia were basically consistent with Iwaki and Johal et al. The femur translation trends of the experiment and FE results were basically consistent Figure 11 in the direction of medial-lateral, up-down, and front-back, respectively.

Figure 2 Open Knee was used to simulate passive movements of the joint by prescribing tibiofemoral flexion and setting the remaining degrees of freedom free.

Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics.

Abstract The model of three-dimensional 3D geometric knee was built, which included femoral-tibial, patellofemoral articulations and the bone and soft tissues.

The results of knee adduction-abduction about living body were little reported recently. From 90—degree flexion, the tibial internal rotation increased while femur external rotation decreased.

If rotating force was applied on tibia, especially for the unloading knee, femur external rotation at 90 degree is reversible. For dynamic movement measurement, three reference frames consisting of 14 mm diameter markers were fixed in tibia, femur, and patella, respectively.

For a given joint load, finite element analysis seeks for mechanical equilibrium which also resolves mechanical interactions between tissues, e.